Pediatrics and Geriatrics
Throughout this course, you have explored pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. While many patient factors may impact these processes and result in adverse drug reactions, age is often the cause. This creates the potential for a variety of issues when prescribing drugs to pediatric and geriatric patients. In terms of drug therapy for these two patient groups, it is essential to consider the harm versus benefit ratio of drug treatments. Are the benefits worth the risk? According to a study published in The New England Journal of Medicine, nearly half of hospitalizations for adverse drug events involved geriatric patients (Budnitz, Lovegrove, Shehab, and Richards, 2011). Pediatric patients follow closely behind due to issues with dosing and polypharmacy.
Nursing Assignment: Pediatrics And Geriatrics
Due to aging and alterations of disease, the cellular structure of the body changes across the lifespan—from pediatrics to geriatrics. As a result, body systems begin to function differently and may react to drugs differently through pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes. In pediatric and geriatric patients, the body absorbs, distributes, metabolizes, and excretes drugs differently than the average adult’s body. Since the dosing guidelines for most drugs are not written to account for these differences, the potential for adverse reactions in pediatric and geriatric patients increases. When prescribing drugs to pediatric and geriatric patients, health care providers have to weigh benefits against potential harmful effects.
· Review this week’s media presentation.
· Review Chapter 4 and Chapter 6 in the Poole Arcangelo and Peterson text, as well as the Hilmer, et al, article in the Learning Resources.
· Select one of the following patient groups to be the focus of your Discussion: pediatric or geriatric.
· Select a body system. Consider the pathophysiology of the system and how this body system absorbs, distributes, metabolizes, and excretes drugs for the group you selected.
· Select two classes of drugs. Consider the benefits and limitations of prescribing these classes of drugs to the group you selected.
Questions to be addressed in my paper:
1. An explanation of the pathophysiology of the body system you selected in the patient group you selected.
2. Explain how this body system absorbs, distributes, metabolizes, and excretes drugs in the patient group you selected.
3. Describe the benefits and limitations of prescribing two particular classes of drugs to patients in this group.
4. Summary with Conclusion
1) 2-3 pages (addressing the 4 questions above excluding the title page and reference page).
2) Kindly follow APA format for the citation and references! References should be between the period of 2011 and 2016. Please utilize the references at least three below as much as possible and the rest from yours.
3) Make headings for each question.
· Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2012). Understanding pathophysiology (Laureate custom ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
o Chapter 31, “Structure and Function of the Reproductive Systems”
This chapter establishes a foundation for examining alterations of reproductive systems by examining the female and male reproductive systems. It covers the development of both reproductive systems and effects of aging on the systems.
o Chapter 32, “Alterations of the Reproductive Systems, Including Sexually Transmitted Infections”
This chapter covers alterations of the female and male reproductive systems. It also explores the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and treatment of sexually transmitted infections.
Poole Arcangelo, V., & Peterson, A. M. (Eds.). (2013). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (3rd ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
o Chapter 4, “Principles of Pharmacotherapy in Pediatrics” (Review)
This chapter explores concepts relating to drug selection, administration, and interaction for pediatric patients. It also compares age-related pharmacokinetic differences in children and adults.
o Chapter 6, “Principles of Pharmacotherapy in Elderly Patients” (Review)
This chapter describes issues and factors that affect drug therapy for elderly patients. It then explores concepts relating to drug selection, administration, and management for elderly patients.
o Chapter 33, “Prostatic Disorders and Erectile Dysfunction”
This chapter examines the causes, pathophysiology, and drug treatment of four disorders: prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate cancer, and erectile dysfunction. It also explores the importance of monitoring patient response and patient education.
o Chapter 34, “Overactive Bladder”
This chapter describes the causes, pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, and evaluation of overactive bladder. It also outlines the process of initiating, administering, and managing drug treatment for this disorder.
o Chapter 55, “Contraception”
This chapter examines various methods of contraception. It also covers drug interactions, selecting the most appropriate agent, and monitoring patient response to contraception.
o Chapter 56, “Menopause and Menopausal Hormone Therapy”
This chapter presents various options for menopausal hormone therapy. It also examines the strengths and limitations of each form of therapy.
o Chapter 57, “Osteoporosis”
This chapter covers various options for treating osteoporosis. It also describes proper dosages, potential adverse reactions, and special considerations of each drug.
o Chapter 58, “Vaginitis”
This chapter examines various causes of vaginitis. It also explores the diagnostic criteria and methods of treatment for the disorder.
Hilmer, S. N., McLachlan, A. J., & Le Couteur, D. G. (2007). Clinical pharmacology in the geriatric patient. Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology, 21(3), 217–230.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
This article explores issues that health care providers consider when prescribing drug treatment to geriatric patients. It also examines the role of polypharmacy in adverse drug reactions and the importance of managing patient response to drug treatment.
Drugs.com. (2012). Retrieved from www.drugs.com
This website presents a comprehensive review of prescription and over-the-counter drugs, including information on common uses and potential side effects. It also provides updates relating to new drugs on the market, support from health professionals, and a drug-drug interactions checker.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2012). Recommendations for adults [Online guidelines]. Retrieved from http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/adultrec.htm
This website lists various preventive services available for men and women. It provides information about available screenings, tests, preventive medication, and counseling.
· Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012d). Final course review. Baltimore, MD: Author.
This media is an interactive final review covering course content from Weeks 7–11.
· Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Retrieved August 10, 2012, fromhttp://www.cdc.gov
· Haymarket Media, Inc. (2012). Monthly prescribing reference [Online database]. Retrieved fromhttp://www.empr.com/
· Institute for Safe Medication Practices. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.ismp.org/
· Medscape. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/