Ethics and Moral Reasoning discussion and assignment
defining the terms “duty” and “good will.” as used in Kantian philosophy
wo commonly misunderstood concepts in deontology are “duty” and “good will.” Begin your discussion by defining those terms as used in Kantian philosophy. Then go on to consider the following: Kant famously states that the only thing good without qualification is a good will. On this basis, he holds that we can do the “right action” but not out of a good will, and that only actions done from a good will are morally praiseworthy. Do you agree with Kant? Provide an example (real or made up) of someone doing a good thing but out of a motive other than that of a good will, and give reasons for why you think Kant is right, or why you think Kant is wrong that this action lacks moral value. Discuss the importance of the will and how one can attempt to create a good will. If you do not think a good will is important discuss your reasons for believing that the will is not important in ethical action.
The following short essay assignment is designed to help prepare you for an important part of the Final Paper. In this essay, you will do the following:
- Choose either the same ethical question you formulated and introduced in the Week One Assignment, or a different one based off the list of acceptable topics.
- Choose either utilitarian or deontological ethical theory to apply to the ethical question.
- Explain the core principles of that theory.
- Demonstrate how the principles of the theory support a certain position on that question.
- Articulate a relevant objection to that position.
Write a five-paragraph essay that conforms to the requirements below. The paper must be at least 1,000 words in length (excluding title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. The paragraphs of your essay should conform to the following guidelines:
The introduction should clearly state the ethical question under consideration, and define the essential issues. You may build upon the question and introduction you provided in the Week One Assignment; or you may choose a different question, but it must be based off the list of acceptable topics. Your introduction should include a brief remark about the kind of theory you will be using to approach this question. The last sentence of the introduction should briefly summarize the or position on the issue you think is best supported by this theory and succinctly state what the objection will be. Bear in mind that your essay will not be concerned with your own position on this issue, but what someone reasoning along the lines of the chosen theory would conclude; this may or may not be the position you took in the Week One Assignment.
- Body Paragraphs
Each paragraph in the body should start with a topic sentence that clearly identifies the main idea of the paragraph.
- Theory explanation
Explain the core principles or features of the deontological or utilitarian theory and the general account of moral reasoning it provides.
You must quote from at least one required resource other than your textbook that defends or represents that theory. Refer to the list of acceptable resources.
- Theory explanation
Demonstrate how the principles or features of the deontological or utilitarian theory apply to the question under consideration and identify the specific conclusion that results from applying the reasoning characteristic of that kind of approach.
Your application should clearly show how the conclusion follows from the main principles and features of the theory as addressed in the previous paragraph. Please see the associated guidance for help in fulfilling this requirement.
Raise a relevant objection to the argument expressed in your application. An objection articulates a plausible reason why someone might find the argument problematic. This can be a false or unsupported claim or assumption, fallacious reasoning, a deep concern about what the conclusion involves, a demonstration of how the argument supports other conclusions that are unacceptable, etc. You should aim to explain this objection as objectively as possible, (i.e., in a way that would be acceptable to someone who disagrees with the argument from the previous paragraph).
Note that this does not necessarily mean that the objection succeeds, or that the conclusion the theory supports is wrong. It may be an obstacle that any adequate defense of the conclusion would have to overcome, and it may be the case that the theory has the resources to overcome that obstacle. Your task here is simply to raise the objection or present the “obstacle.”
- Body Paragraphs
The conclusion should very briefly summarize the main points of your essay.
- You must use at least two resources to support your claims.
- At least one of the resources should be one of the Required or Recommended Resources that represent the theory you have chosen, and must be drawn from the list of acceptable resources available in your online classroom.
- The other source should pertain to the particular issue you are writing about and should be drawn from the required or recommended readings in the course, or be a scholarly source found in the Ashford Unversity Library.
- You are encouraged to use additional resources, so long as at least two conform to the requirements above.
- The textbook does not count toward satisfying the resources requirement.
- To count toward satisfying the requirement, resources must be cited within the body of your paper and on the reference page and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.