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Ideological leaders will develop when the leader

has particular expertise

appeals to shared values

makes a rational appeal to followers

appeals to emotion


A leadership contingency theory that stresses the intelligence and experience of the leader is

cognitive resource theory

leadership substitutes theory

situational leadership theory

normative decision theory


A theory that emphasizes leader traits and skills as determinants of leadership behavior is best categorized at what level?






CEOs who exhibit charismatic characteristics were noted to

generate more sales

increase company profitability

negotiate higher compensation packages

make company ads


Distant charismatics are often described in terms of their effect on follower

political attitudes

task behavior

identification with the leader



What level of leadership process is emphasized in most theories of effective leadership?






Which statement comparing transformational and charismatic leadership is most accurate?

There are no important differences between the two types of leadership.

 Leader articulation of an appealing vision is important in both theories.

Situational variables are less important for charismatic leadership.

Personal identification is more important in transformational leadership.


Effective transformational leaders

delegate most decisions to individuals or self-managed teams

  use a combination of transformational and transactional behaviors

challenge strongly held values of followers to get their attention

select subordinates who will be loyal and uncritical


Charismatic leaders add followers by

sharing the decision making

possessing specific expertise

 appealing to emotions and articulating a vision

considering other solutions


A contingency theory of leadership that depends on specific procedures for leader behaviors and has strong support is

cognitive resource theory

normative decision theory

multiple-linkage model theory

LPC contingency model


Most leadership theories emphasize

leader characteristics

characteristics of the leadership situation

both leader and follower characteristics

follower characteristics


Most of the leadership theory and research explaining the actions of leaders and why those actions occurred has described

descriptive leadership

universal leadership

ethical leadership

prescriptive leadership


One unique characteristic of followers in leadership theory is

task commitment and effort


skills and expertise

confidence and optimism


The concept that some people are natural (born) leaders is an attribute of which leadership approach?

Power-influence approach

Situation approach

Trait approach

Behavior approach


The leadership process that describes how a group operates in an open system with other groups is called

inter-active process

group process

organizational process

intra-individual process


Contingency theories may be difficult to implement because

there is always a single best solution

situational changes happen infrequently

managers have time to evaluate situations

of the rapid pace of business


Transformational behavior can include

contingent rewards

inspirational motivation

active management by exception

passive management by exception


A contingency theory that contains mediating variables is

situational leadership theory

leadership substitutes theory

multiple-linkage model

cognitive resource theory


A theory that explains the most effective pattern of leadership behavior in a specified situation is best classified as






Which of the following is a characteristic of a positive charismatic?

Devotion to ideology not personal identification

Centralized decision making by the leader

Information is restricted

Dependency on the leader


Which statement about transformational and charismatic leadership is most accurate?

Charisma is a necessary ingredient in transformational leadership

Charismatic leaders are more effective in business organizations

Both types of leadership involve the same underlying processes

Both types of leadership are effective in any situation


Which characteristic of negative charismatic leadership is more likely to lead to failure?

Centralized decision making

Focus on personal power

Tendency to make risky decisions


Identification to the organization

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