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I need a response to the three different discussion postings. The response should be one or two lines and you can ask a question. 

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Substance Abuse Treatment Research

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The 1st response is to the questions asked by the instructor.

 

 

The second and 3rd discussion: Read the literature and post a response to the literature.

 

The 1st response is to my previously submitted assignment below. Instructor inquired:

 

From the instructor:

 

Interesting study.  How long will this study last?

 

 

My assignment I submitted

National Institutes on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has been instrumental in fighting substance abuse by providing solutions. NIDA uses both Pharmacological and behavioral intervention approaches in drug treatment since different drug require a particular approach that will work best for a drug addict or different drugs (Alan, 2012).

Behavioral Intervention- this method has proven to be effective for most drugs like cocaine, which is one of the abused drugs among the youths. Behavioral treatment of cocaine has worked excellently well in both outpatient and residential setting. For instance lab, test on behavioral therapies are rare and the most reliable methods of dealing with many drug problems including stimulant addictions. Cocaine therapy has been one of the positive results witness over the recent years by NIDA, most of the cocaine addicts have been successfully managed in a larger population. The use of this method aims at assisting the patients to remember, avoid and cope that is they can recognize the condition that might likely drive them to use cocaine. The therapy is also compatible with any treatment a patient may be subjected to, and thus it is more advantage to the patient than its short-comings.

Immediate physiological changes in drug treatment usually depend on the gender in comparison with men who are substance dependent women have a high chance of risk (Newman, 2001). Women are subjected to more therapy that can lead to visual-spatial ability, working memory, and psycho-motor speed. The theory of accelerated progression to treatment entry among the females rely on opioids, cannabis, and alcoholic beverages. Making them more vulnerable to the severe effect of these disorders. Women using cocaine are reported to suffer so much of neurological, cardiovascular, mood, nose and gastrointestinal symptoms as compared to men.

Reference

Marlatt, G. &  Alan, J. (2012). Relapse prevention maintenance strategies in the treatment of addictive behaviors. New York: Guilford Press.

 

Newman, F. & Liese, S. (2001). Cognitive Therapy of Substance Abuse. Guilford Press. pp. 169–186

 

 

2nd discussion  The response should be one or two lines and you can ask a question. 

 

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Substance Abuse Treatment Research

The study I have chosen is one that is researching nicotine dependence in those that smoke. In the study they will focus on those who are in the age range of 18-55. There is a total of 4 different groups, but the only three will participate in the study, the fourth one is just a group of volunteers. The first group will be those who are currently smokers who want to quit, and the other group will be smokers who don’t want to quit. In the next group there are who are healthy former smokers, and last will be healthy non smokers.

All of the participants will be given a medical exam, and also blood samples will be taken. The three groups will all take MRI’s, and they will be given tests on thinking, concentration, and memory skills. All of these test will take place inside and out of the MRI scanner, and also at a computer. Those who smoke and are trying to quit will have to go through 12 weeks of counseling, and use e-cigarettes. Those in the test will have a total of 6 MRI’s as they try abstinence, and again they will do memory tasks, thinking, and concentration inside and out of the scanner.

“For smokers the first scan will take place before they try and quit. The second scan will happen 48 hours after their last real cigarette, and after that they will only use e-cigarettes. After two weeks of e-cigarettes, there will be another scan which is the third scan. Next they will cut the use of the e-cigarettes over three weeks, and they will be in nicotine abstinence. After five weeks, another scan will take place, six months after the study started, the fifth scan. The sixth scan will happen after one year of study. All smokers will will have support until they quit smoking, until the study ends in one year.

The treatment would be considered drug/pharmacological intervention, with the use of the e-cigarettes. “Treatments for nicotine addiction are only marginally effective (Changeux, 2010). “Many do stop smoking, and they experience major health benefits” (Godtfredsen & Prescott, 2011).

“Nicotine acts on Nicotinic Cholinergic receptors in the brain” (Changeux, 2010). This causes rapid triggering of neural & neuromuscular transmissions. The following symptoms take place such as weakness, tachycardia, mydriasis, hypertention, and fasciulation..

References

Biopsychology  Ninth Edition  Pearson Education   Pinel, John P.J.  (Godtfredsen & prescott, 2011)  https://digitalbookshelf.argosy.edu/#/books/9781323123058/cfi/12/10!/4/2/30/6/24/2/2@0:34.3

Biopsychology  Ninth Edition  Pearson Education  Pinel, John P.J. (Changeux, 2010)    https://digitalbookshelf.argosy.edu/#/books/9781323123058/cfi/12/10!/4/2/30/2/2/2@0:10.4

ClinicalTrials.gov  National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)

https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01867411?term=NIDA&rank=50

 

3rd discussion  The response should be one or two lines and you can ask a question. 

sb

From the various studies, I chose Hospital Visit as Opportunity for Prevention and Engagement for HIV-Infected Drug Users.  This study evaluates the most effective strategy in achieving HIV virologic suppression among HIV-infected substance users recruited from the hospital setting who are randomly assigned to one of the three treatment conditions: 1) Patient Navigator (PN); 2) Patient Navigator + Contingency Management (PN+CM); and 3) Treatment as Usual (TAU).

 

This treatment would be characterized as a behavioral intervention.  Both the Patient Navigation (PN) Group and Patient Navigator Plus Contingency Management (PN+CM) Group would be treated with behavioral interventions. The hospital visits are responsible for behavioral treatment and intervention.  This intervention does not relate to any of the drug treatments I read about this module because there are no drugs in this treatment.  The hospital visits are accounted to draw blood and monitor patients on a regular basis.  A particular neurochemical may be altered by this behavior by suppressing the HIV Viral and significantly lowering substance use.


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