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1. The process by which food is received into the GI tract via the mouth is called _______________.

2. The esophagus is digestive in function. ______________.

3. Swallowing has both voluntary and involuntary components. ____________.

4. The function of the epiglottis is to prevent a bolus from entering the ______________________.

5. The first wave of contraction of the esophageal muscles is called ___________ ______________.

6. If a food bolus does not make it all the way to the stomach, _____________________ peristalsis

forces the bolus the remainder of the way.

7. Peristaltic contractions of the stomach occur about ___________ times per minute when food

makes it into the body and fundus.

8. The frequency of peristaltic contractions is regulated by ____________________________ cells.

9. Gastric emptying would be slowed by which of the following?


10. ______________ regulate gastric juice secretion during the cephalic phase.

11.The cephalic phase of digestion is regulated by short reflexes. ___________.

12. The ____________________ nerve carries electrical signals from the brain to the stomach.

13. The hormone ________________________________ regulates gastric secretion during the

gastric phase of digestion.

Page 1 of 4 BIO1014 Anatomy and Physiology II Lab © 2013 South University

14. Gastric motility ______________________________ as the stomach begins to receive food.

15. The hormone ______________________________ released by the duodenum causes gastric

motility to decrease when fats are present in the duodenum.

16. The hormone __________________________ causes the gallbladder to contract and release bile

into the small intestine.

17. The ________________________________________ reflex describes the communication

between the intestine and the stomach.

18. Sympathetic nervous system stimulation ______________________ digestive system activity.

19. The motility process illustrated below is ____________________________________.

20. Segmentation moves chyme in only one direction. __________.

21. The frequency of segmentation contractions is greatest in the __________________________.

22. ______________________________ reflexes stimulate the ileum to increase activity when food

is in the stomach.

23. The hormone _______________ causes the ileocecal sphincter to relax during the gastric phase.

24. During the interdigestive period, ____________ _________________ _____________ occur

about once every 90 minutes to move undigested materials toward the terminal ileum.

25. Migrating motility complexes are controlled by the central nervous system. ___________.

Page 2 of 4 BIO1014 Anatomy and Physiology II Lab © 2013 South University

26.List the two major functions of the large intestine:

1. ___________________________________________________________________

2. ___________________________________________________________________

27. Pockets formed by the contractions of the transverse and descending colon musculature are

called __________________.

28. Sustained, intense propulsive peristaltic contractions of the large intestine are called

_____________ _____________.

29. Which of the following is under voluntary control? ____________________________________.

30. Only about __________ ml of the 500 ml of chyme that entered the colon is voided as feces.

31. Place the following labels on the large intestine figure below:

cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, haustra,


32. The _______________________________ reflex stimulates mass movements of the colon.

Page 3 of 4 BIO1014 Anatomy and Physiology II Lab © 2013 South University

33. List three emotions or sensations that may produce constipation.

1. ______________________________________________________________________

2. ______________________________________________________________________

3. ______________________________________________________________________

34. The vomiting reflex is coordinated in the ___________________ ____________________.

35. Which of the following is not typically a stimulus for the vomiting reflex?

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